Combining teaching strategies
The following combining teaching strategies and learning techniques fall at various points on a scale of completely directive to completely nondirective. Directive instruction is teacher-oriented and didactic, whereas nondirective instruction is student-oriented and facilitative. An interactive as opposed combining teaching strategies passive approach wherein the student is allowed to generate, rather than receive, information.
In an active learning environment, the teacher assumes the role of facilitator. Examples include combining teaching strategies group dialogue, cold calling, think-pair-share, and reciprocal peer combining teaching strategies.
By using assessment strategies that draw students into the assessment process, it is more likely that they learn more of the content that you want them to learn while getting the added benefits of learning skills that will be useful to them in the future. By deliberately using different Functions of Assessments at specific times during the learning process students, will have a clearer vision of what is expected of them and generally will be more positive about their course experiences. A blended learning approach combines combining teaching strategies classroom methods with computer-mediated activities to form an integrated instructional approach.
In the past, digital materials have served a supplementary role, helping to support face-to-face instruction. For example, a blended approach to a traditional, face-to-face course might mean that the class meets once per week instead of the usual three-session format. Learning activities that otherwise would have taken place during classroom time can be moved online. This is the idea behind flipped classrooms. In order to generate creative ideas, learners are asked to withhold judgment or criticism and produce a very large number of ways to do something, such as resolve a problem.
For example, learners may be asked to think of as many they can for eliminating world hunger. Once a large number of ideas have been generated, they are subjected to inspection regarding their feasibility.
A web-based management tool that enables discipline-based writing combining teaching strategies peer review in classes of any size. Pre-written assignments by other instructors can be used or adapted to fit your needs.
Citation credit is attributed to faculty authors whose writing assignments are modified. Campus-based learning uses the campus buildings and grounds as teaching tools. Projects can provide hands-on, real-world experiences that link to service-learning and civic engagement programs, and can be accomplished without a field trip budget or transportation.
An examination of a real or simulated problem, which is structured so that learning can take place or be reinforced. Also, a detailed analysis made of some specific, usually compelling event or series of related events so that learners will better understand its nature and what might be done about it.
For example, learners in a technology lab might investigate the wear and tear of skate boarding on public works. Another class might look at cases of digital technologies and privacy. Centers of Interest and Displays: Instructors can employ the systems to gather individual responses from students or to gather anonymous feedback. In contrast to the more direct method of learning-by-doing, cognitive apprenticeship encourages students to learn by observing before trying out a task themselves in order to reduce demands on the mental faculties.
The four-step training regimen runs as follows: Students work in small groups to complete a specific task or work together over time to complete various assignments. The most productive collaborations involve a fair division of labor and relevant combining teaching strategies complex projects that cannot be completed by an individual alone. An individualistic method that encourages scaled performance. When coupled with student interaction through peer instruction, ConcepTests represent a rapid method of formative assessment of student understanding.
Students are directed through a process that assists them in understanding how to deal with controversial and sensitive issues and clarifies these issues in a group context.
Involves critical thinking and discourse analysis. There are different kinds of groups for different situations, but they all balance some key elements that distinguish cooperative learning from competitive or individualistic learning.
Debates formal and informal: Similar combining teaching strategies discussion but more structured. A combining teaching strategies method based predominantly on the modeling of knowledge and combining teaching strategies. A form of presentation whereby the teacher or learners show how something works or operates, or how something is done. For example, a teacher could demonstrate how to use a thesaurus, how to operate a power drill, how to scan an image, or combining teaching strategies happens when oil is spilled on water as when an oil tanker leaks.
Following that, students practice under teacher supervision. Finally, independent practice is done to the point of proficiency. A group assembles combining teaching strategies communicate with one another through speaking and listening about a topic or event of mutual interest.
For example, a group of learners convenes to discuss what it has learned about global warming. Teachers can hold class-wide discussions or divide students into groups. A form of independent study whereby, after the teacher explains a task, learners practice it. Experiential learning is a process through which students develop knowledge, skills, and values from direct experiences outside a traditional academic setting.
Experiential learning encompasses a variety of activities including internships, service learning, undergraduate research, study abroad, and other creative and professional work experiences. Well-planned, supervised, and assessed experiential learning programs can stimulate academic inquiry by promoting interdisciplinary learning, civic engagement, career development, cultural awareness, leadership, and other professional and intellectual skills.
Field observation, fieldwork, field trip: Observations made or work carried on in a natural setting. Students visit the local museum of natural history to see displays about dinosaurs, or they begin and operate a small business to learn about production and marketing. A discussion technique for active engagement. Students get out of their chairs and actively synthesize important concepts in consensus building, writing, and public speaking. Teams rotate around the classroom, composing answers to questions as well as reflecting upon the answers given by other groups.
Combining teaching strategies are posted on charts or just pieces of paper located in different parts of the classroom. Competitive activity based on course content. Moderate competition enhances performance. Often used for content reinforcement and skill practice.
Can also be combining teaching strategies to strengthen critical thinking in games where strategies must be developed to solve problems. In order to create a truly educational game, the instructor needs to make sure that learning the material is essential to scoring and winning. Clarifying relationships with diagrams or graphs; clarifying processes with flow charts. To be used in lectures or as assignments. Students are placed within a setting or situation in which they exclude all else from combining teaching strategies experiences.
If they are immersed in a language, they speak, hear, write, and read only that language. If they are immersed in a work setting and assigned a role there, they become that role and their communications and actions comply with that role.
Also called discovery-based learning, a method used when students are encouraged to derive their own understanding or meaning for something. For example, students are asked to find out what insulation acts as the best barrier for cold or hot environments. Interactive learning is a more hands-on, real-world process of relaying information in classrooms.
Passive learning relies on listening to teachers lecture or combining teaching strategies memorization of combining teaching strategies, figures, or equations. But with interactive learning, students are invited to participate in the conversation, through technology online reading and math programs, combining teaching strategies instance or through role-playing group exercises in class. In a jigsaw, the class is divided into several teams, with each team preparing separate but related assignments.
When all team members are prepared, the class is re-divided into mixed groups, with combining teaching strategies member from each team combining teaching strategies each group. Just-in-Time Teaching focuses on improving student learning through the use of brief combining teaching strategies questions JiTT exercises delivered before a class meeting.
From a cognitive perspective, the dramatic effects of learning-by-observing can be explained in the following way: There seems combining teaching strategies be a degree of objectivity achieved by watching someone else perform a task that cannot be achieved— or at least maintained— while performing the combining teaching strategies yourself.
Active lectures blend minute presentation segments with interactive experiences such as asking provocative questions and class or small group discussions. Using visual aids such as graphic organizers, video clips, or a few PowerPoint slides to emphasize main points and an engaging voice improve results. Students read and reflect on articles in the professional journals in order to become familiar with the current research. As a class, students are presented with information to be learned at a predetermined level of mastery.
The class is then tested and individuals who do not obtain high enough scores are retaught and retested. Those who passed undertake enrichment study while classmates catch up. Also called rote learning, memorizing is a learning technique based on repetition and retention. This is the most widely tested form of learning. Metacognition is a critically important yet often overlooked component of learning.
All of these activities are metacognitive in nature. By teaching students these skills — all of which can be learned — we can improve student learning. There are three critical steps to teaching metacognition: Teaching students that their ability to learn is mutable; teaching planning and goal-setting; and giving students ample opportunities to practice monitoring their learning and adapting as necessary.
It presents unique attributes compared to conventional e-learning: Moreover, it is an aid to formal and informal learning and thus holds enormous potential to transform the delivery of education and training. Integrating varying formats such as lecture, text, graphics, audio, video, Web resources, projection devices, and interactive devices in a lesson.
Increases motivation, alertness, and can improve the quality of student responses. Simultaneous presentation using multiple formats allows students to learn using multiple senses. In the arts and sciences, for example, using objects from museums and campus collections to enhance your lectures and seminars. A student-to-student support network for both academic and personal development. Advanced students are trained to help beginning students, meeting regularly in small groups to help them improve their understanding of the subject matter, work through common problems, and further develop their learning strategies.
Peer-to-Peer teaching is a method of instruction that involves students teaching other students. Students learn more and demonstrate mastery when they are able to comprehensively teach a subject.
Cognitive Combining teaching strategies Instruction is a very broad subject but here you will find an overview of the process and practical tips. For more in depth study references are provided. Combining teaching strategies is a tool intended to help students develop the necessary skills to be self-regulated learners. Our purpose is to introduce and explain the Self-Regulated Strategy Development SRSD model of implementation, as well as provide the foundational basis for its effectiveness.
Information presented will include:. We should stress that the instructional process is what determines the effectiveness of strategy instruction. It would not be possible to regulate something that was not conscious. Facilitate performance - strategies are processes that when matched to task requirements, improve performance.
You can do things better, easier, and quicker when you use a strategy. In essence, a strategy is simply a tool used to accomplish a task. A strategy concentrates and enhances effort. Just as using a lever allows us to move heavy objects more easily, so strategies allow for enhanced performance of academic tasks. Most of us use strategies continually, without even realizing it. Strategies are so integrated into everyday life that we are usually combining teaching strategies even aware that we are using them.
Strategic approaches to tasks separate poor learners from more effective learners. While the use of strategies is common among successful learners the opposite is true for struggling learners and in particular students with learning disabilities.
These students may not develop effective strategies, or may use ineffective or inappropriate strategies. Strategies run the gamut from simple to combining teaching strategies complex. Educators need to look critically at any instructional strategy before they choose to implement it, combining teaching strategies both pros and cons of the strategy. All this may make strategies sound complicated, but that's not necessarily the case.
Unlike many other educational techniques, Cognitive Strategy Instruction is founded on a broad base of research that has validated its effectiveness. The research clearly proves the effectiveness of Strategies Instruction. This research has been conducted in "real" classrooms with "real" students over 20 years. CSI has combining teaching strategies used across a wide variety of curriculum areas such as: CSI is in the forefront of current educational practices, largely because of its extensive research base.
Choosing instructional strategies can sometimes be like a shot in the dark. There are many different reasons why certain strategies and curriculums are chosen:. However, combining teaching strategies would stress that the focus should not be on the strategies themselves, but rather on the implementation process.
Even an effective strategy will fail to produce results if it is improperly implemented. Implementing a strategy should be viewed as a "process. The "process" of implementation, the SRSD model, is also based on validated methods. Each step involved in the "process" of implementation is based on research findings and current best practices. The implementation model that we use follows is based on Harris and Graham's Self-Regulated Strategy Development model.
The goal of SRSD is to make the use of strategies habitual, flexible, and automatic. This can take a lot of time, practice, and effort. The SRSD model is very comprehensive. This ensures that crucial steps are not overlooked. Following a model such as SRSD has two major advantages:.
First, it gives you an instructional template to follow. You know how to teach the strategy in a step-by-step fashion. Second, strategy instruction involves a major time and effort commitment. The instructional model is a serious consideration when implementing strategy instruction. Not only could a model prove to be ineffective, it could also prove to be detrimental to students. Cognitive Strategy Instruction is effective for combining teaching strategies variety of learners, but particularly students with learning disabilities.
Students with learning disabilities often do not develop the types of strategies necessary to successfully attack tasks. One critical aspect of strategy instruction is combining teaching strategies appreciate that children with learning disabilities have problems that go beyond academics, and that these problems can adversely affect academic performance.
The Self-Regulated Strategy Development model stresses the need to provide students with essential metacognitive knowledge of the strategies. Students must understand how a strategy works and why each step in the strategy is performed. Combining teaching strategies Self-Regulated Strategy Development model enables students to understand the process of the strategy.
Research shows that students who are actively involved in the education process have better retention, motivation and overall attitudes towards learning. Many struggling learners may never develop strategies, will use ineffective or immature strategies, or fail to employ strategies all together.
Strategy instruction can dramatically increase student performance. CSI is flexible and can be used in combination with different self-regulation techniques. These techniques would need to be taught explicitly and combined in the modeling, memorizing, supporting, and combining teaching strategies performance stages.
They would need to be incorporated into most of the process. Self-regulation can prove to be an effective way for students to monitor their own progress and see their improvements. It will take a significant investment of time and effort in order to increase student performance to a level, where they are metacognitive and self-regulating.
The stages of implementation are set up to combining teaching strategies that all necessary areas are fully addressed. However, the stages combining teaching strategies flexible and may be reordered or combined as deemed appropriate or necessary by the teacher.
The stages are intended to be recursive and should be revisited to ensure mastery. This is part of the flexibility of this model. Stages can combining teaching strategies should be revisited as part of the instructional process. Revisiting stages will not only help with mastery, it will also allow students to rethink and develop metacognitive skills. Developing background knowledge sometimes seems so obvious that it is often overlooked. Struggling learners may lack essential background knowledge or preskills necessary to successfully complete a task combining teaching strategies use a strategy.
In many instances, what knowledge a student does have is often fragmented. Students must have mastered prerequisite skills to effectively use a strategy. While developing background knowledge it is necessary to initially define the basic skills needed to perform the strategy, and to make certain that the students understand the combining teaching strategies used in the strategy. In order for students combining teaching strategies understand the strategy they need to understand its most basic components.
The best way to identify the basic terms and skills necessary combining teaching strategies the strategy is to do a task analysis. The task analysis will help teachers to determine whether or not students possess the prerequisite skills necessary perform the strategy.
After combining teaching strategies task analysis is complete there are many ways that teachers can check students' skills.
These include observing student performance, using curriculum-based measures, or simply asking students. Often, instructors will already possess knowledge of student pre-skills. Skill deficits should be addressed prior to introducing the new strategy.
Discussion of the strategy is a more involved process than merely going through the steps of a strategy. A major goal of strategy instruction is to bring students to the point where they are self-regulated. In order for this goal to be achieved, students need to be actively involved and allowed combining teaching strategies in the process. Teachers will need to "sell" the strategy and get students to "buy in. If a student does not want to use a strategy it is fair to combining teaching strategies that they will not.
Teachers need to be excited, combining teaching strategies and energized so that students will be too. The use of the strategy should combining teaching strategies an easy "sell", it will result in improved academic performance. Provide students with examples of how this strategy or other strategies have improved student performance in the past, and even how strategies have helped you in the past.
This may not be enough; you will most likely need to find what motivates your particular students. During this stage it is appropriate for the teachers to explain the benefits of using the strategy; discussing and even providing examples of current performance.
Teachers should ask students combining teaching strategies, and ask them how confident they feel in the particular subject or skill being discussed. Then explain how learning the strategy can improve their performance. The final part of this stage is introducing students to the steps of the strategy. Strategy steps should be explained one-by-one. Typically this is where teachers begin, but the SRSD model has allowed much of the ground work to already be laid at this point.
Throughout this process teachers should be monitoring their students' understanding. Part of combining teaching strategies process is to work in cooperation with the students and in doing so you must make sure that they are keeping up and understanding what is being explained. Purpose of modeling is to expose students to the thought processes of a skilled learner. Good modeling goes well beyond merely presenting the steps in a strategy.
It provides students with the "why" and "how" of various strategy steps. It also demonstrates that student effort is essential, and shows that strategy use results in better performance. By modeling, a teacher can show not only what to do, but what to think as well. This process is called a 'think aloud'. A think aloud goes beyond just listing the steps in a strategy.