Pay equity and trade unions
Another reason why occupational segregation effects gender pay gap is that women often work in sectors where wages are, on average, lower than in jobs that are dominated by men. See this document for further information: Because domestic work is not equally shared between men and women, women have more frequent career breaks, mostly to bring up children. This, in turn, has a negative impact on their careers.
Gender pay gap in the UK: The ONS have conducted research into the causes of the gender pay gap. This found the key factors explaining the pay gap were as follows:. List of 5 causes for the gender pay gap. Rank in order of importance - 1 being most important 5 being least - and discuss why you have ranked it in that order.
Now re-rank these 5 causes in order of "difficulty to change". What solutions could be developed to tackle the most important and the most difficult-to-change causes of gender pay gap? In Britain, as in every country in the world, women have historically been paid less than men for doing the same job. Contrary to widespread belief, this struggle for equal pay did not start in the s, but has been taken up by women workers since the late 19th century. When they realised that they were expected to do exactly the same work as men but for lower wages, they raised the issue of equal pay through several strikes during this period.
One of the early strikes for equal pay was in by women tram and bus conductors , which resulted in a settlement of a bonus in pay equal to that paid to men workers. Women workers also campaigned against these injustices.
In , the issue of equal pay hit the newspaper headlines. Still not quite equal pay, was it? However, their actions contributed to the campaign for equal pay and the passage of the Equal Pay Act According to this act, men and women are entitled to equal pay and terms of employment.
The provisions regarding equal pay are now in the Equality Act According to this Act, men and women are entitled to equal pay and conditions if they are doing the same job; like work work that is the same or broadly similar ; work rated as equivalent different work, but which is rated under a job evaluation scheme as equivalent ; or work of equal value that is, work that requires similar effort, skill and decision-making.
A bargaining agent or an employer may view the split plan as being inappropriate for the bargaining unit. Employers are obliged to disclose sufficient information to allow the union to properly represent its employees. The Tribunal has ordered that any information related to implementing or maintaining pay equity must be disclosed to the bargaining agent.
Although the Act does not specifically indicate what information is required or when the information must be disclosed in the bargaining process, the Tribunal has ruled that the information requested must be relevant or related to pay equity.
The use of pay equity committees is not required by law. If an employer and union choose to create a committee, they are free to do so. The union constitution may address this issue. There is no requirement in the Act for ongoing pay equity negotiations or for the parties to have a particular system in place to deal with pay equity matters.
Some employers and unions discuss pay equity during collective bargaining; some do not. Some employers and unions negotiate terms under which they will deal with pay equity issues; others have no process in place. Unions and employers must ensure that any changes or agreements reached in collective bargaining do not have adverse pay equity consequences. The law prescribes that employers shall not discriminate against employees because of their gender or sexual orientation in the case of paying wages.
Employees shall receive equal pay for equal work or equal value. However, if such differentials are the result of seniority systems, award and discipline systems, merit systems or other justifiable reasons of non-sexual or non-sexual-orientation factors, the above-mentioned restriction shall not apply. Employers may not adopt methods of reducing the wages of other employees in order to evade the stipulation of the preceding paragraph. According to a report released by the American Association of University Women AAUW , the gender pay gap—which had significantly narrowed since the s—has slowly plateaued in recent years.
Although down from a figure of 91 percent, Washington, D. AAUW analyzed the pay gap by looking at full-time, year-round workers over the age of Beyond comparing salaries of all men to salaries of all women, the report broke down wage imbalances between the sexes along three additional demographics: Asian-American women had the largest gender wage gap while Hispanic or Latina women's earnings were most comparable to their male counterparts.
While greater education does increase women's overall earnings, it does not significantly close the gender wage gap. At every academic achievement level, women's median salaries are less than men's by at least 21 percent.
The pay gap is significantly linked to factors such as college major and type of job pursued after graduation, although there is still a large part that cannot be explained by career choice. In a analysis, AAUW found that women are paid only 82 percent of what their male peers are earning just a year after college graduation.
Ten years out of college, the gap widens with women earning a mere 69 percent of what men earn. The Nan Ya PCB corporation's female employee accused that the female employees' salary were less than male's. The employee said that the company existed sex discrimination for long time and it made females' right damage.
The trade union bargained with the employer for many years. In order to resolve the dispute, the employer add one thousand allowance to female employees per month. But the employees found it still can't eliminate the gender pay gap.
Criticisms of the principle of equal pay for equal work include criticism of the mechanisms used to achieve it and the methodology by which the gap is measured.
They argue the fundamental issue is that the employer is the owner of the job, not the government or the employee. The employer negotiates the job and pays according to performance, not according to job duties. A private business would not want to lose its best performers by compensating them less and can ill afford paying its lower performers higher because the overall productivity will decline. The problem which exists in comparing jobs involving different skills with each other is that there are intangibles besides skills and experience which come into play in determining pay.
For example, it may take the same level of skills to be an electrician as it does to be a nurse, but if the electrician is performing their job feet above the base floor of an offshore oil rig, pay will tend to be higher because the attendant risks are likewise higher. Indeed, many argue that the unwillingness of women to work in jobs which are dangerous or otherwise undesirable such as plumbing and coal mining accounts for a significant percentage of the wage gap.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Male—female income disparity in the United States. Gender pay gap in Australia. Retrieved 27 March S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Oyster, and Jane E.
Sloan SAGE , pp. Before and After the Enlargement of EU: Jill Rubery, 'Equal Pay and Europe', http: Sweet and Maxwell, Publications Office of the European Union, , http: The official website of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. Working conditions must allow women to fulfil their essential role in the family and ensure appropriate protection for the mother and child. House of Representatives ARC ". Retrieved April 24, Closer Look at Comparable Worth: Washington, DC, , pg.
Perspectives on Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth. Comparable Worth and Wage Discrimination: Technical Possibilities and Political Realities. The Politics and Policy of Comparable Worth in State of Washington et al.