Trading system in ancient india dubai
The Silk Road has reached an almost mythical status in history as the center of ancient cultural and economic exchange. However, some scholars believe that the importance of the land trading routes that made up the Road has been exaggerated. Was the Silk Road indispensable to the large empires?
And is it still relevant trading system in ancient india dubai We take a closer look at the reality behind the symbolic power of the Silk Road. Depending on how one measures it, the Silk Road was about 7, miles long.
The Silk Road is not really a single road, but a chain of roads, paths and other means of passage from Xi'an in China to the Mediterranean Sea. It may be well over 10, years old — evidenced by Chinese silk found in Egyptian mummies as far back as the tenth century B.
The Silk Road received its name in from German scholar Baron Ferdinand von Richtofen — centuries after the caravan route stopped being used. The art and civilization of the Silk Road achieved its highest point in the 8th century.
Western civilization began to reach China in the late 6th century with the assistance of Arab middle-men. University of California at Irvine. The Silk Road also flourished during the Mongol Khanate of the 13th and 14th centuries. The Mongols, who ruled a vast empire, safeguarded a northern Silk Road land route that crossed the Eurasian steppes. A round-trip journey taken in ancient times along the Silk Road from China to Rome took two years. On the ancient Silk Road, caravans never completed the entire route.
Goods were dropped at weigh stations, where they were picked up by other caravans. They transported them to the next city — until they reached their final destination. Goods that traveled along the ancient Silk Road increased in price at each city along the route to its destination — as new transporters picked up the goods and moved them further from their trading system in ancient india dubai destination.
Knowledge of winemaking passed eastwards from the Middle East to China, while the idea of noodles moved the opposite direction. Transfer of technologies such as gunpowder, the magnetic compass, the printing press, mathematics and ceramic and lacquer crafts occurred both directions.
Often, the recipients had no clear idea as to their origins — due to the large amounts of time it took to cover the vast distances. Cheaper, easier sea routes were the main reason why trading system in ancient india dubai importance of the Silk Road declined as early as the 1st century.
Hugh Pope, Suns of the Conquerors: Rise of the Turkic People. Trading system in ancient india dubai 30 years, East and South Asian investors have been significant investors in the Middle East — competing for management and investment contracts, many in the energy sector — while capital has gone in the other direction. Today, Baku, now the capital of Azerbaijan, is still a battleground over oil and natural gas from the Caspian Sea. During the 19th century, Azerbaijan was a "way station" on the ancient Silk Road and was central to the battle for regional dominance between Russia and Britain.
Turkey's "Anatolian Tigers" — today's fast developing manufacturing cities such as Kayseri and Malatya in the Southern Anatolia trading system in ancient india dubai — are all trading system in ancient india dubai the ancient Silk Road.
Dubai might well become the unofficial Middle-East capital of the new Silk Road. In Contrast, Iran — once a central force — is now lagging behind. Inthe first Opium War began when Chinese customs officials at Canton destroyed a large quantity of opium that British merchants were trying to smuggle into China in order to buy tea and silk.
The Globalist Daily online magazine on the global economy, politics and culture. Just how long was the Silk Road? Washington Post Was it simply a strait path the whole way? Washington Post And how old is it? Washington Post How did it get its name? Trading system in ancient india dubai of California at Irvine Any other times? Financial Times Did people often travel the whole distance? Washington Post What did that do to the price of the goods being transported?
Washington Post What is an example of cultural exchange facilitated by the Silk Road that still has relevance today? The Economist What else was exchanged? What is linking these cities? Wall Street Journal If the Chinese and European empires were once the end destinations — and key influences — of the ancient Silk Road, trading system in ancient india dubai would be the pivot point of the new Silk Road today? Harvard University And finally, how did the Western interest in Chinese silk lead to war?
Get The Globalist's latest headlines in your email inbox three times a week. Stephan Richter discusses the U.
The city of Dubai is the main city of the emirate of Dubai. The city is sometimes called "Dubai City" to prevent it from being mixed up with the emirate. Although stone tools have been found at many archaeological sites, little is known about the UAE's early inhabitants as only a few settlements have been found. Many ancient towns in the area were trading centres between the Trading system in ancient india dubai and Western worlds.
The area was covered with sand about 5, years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 3rd and 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir or Bajar.
After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Trading system in ancient india dubai and drove out the Sassanians.
The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in and mentioned Dubai Dibei for its pearling industry. Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, bya town of some 7— members of the Baniyas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnoon of Abu Dhabi.
Infollowing tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasa tribe seceded from Abu Trading system in ancient india dubai and established themselves in Dubai. Dubai signed the first treaty of Perpetual Maritime Truce in along with other Trucial States, which was followed by a further treaty in It also — like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast — entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in Two catastrophes struck the town during the s.
First, ina smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. Then, infire swept through Deira, burning down most homes. However, the town's geographical location continued to attract traders and merchants from around the region. The emir of Dubai was keen to attract foreign traders and lowered trade tax brackets, which lured traders away from Sharjah and Bandar Lengeh, the region's main trade hubs at the time.
Persian merchants naturally looked across to the Arab shore of the Persian Gulf finally making their homes in Dubai. They continued to trade with Lingah, however, as do many of the dhows in Dubai Creek today, and they named their district Bastakiya, after the Bastak region in southern Persia. Dubai's geographical proximity to Iran made it an important trade location. The town of Dubai was an important port of call for foreign tradesmen, chiefly those from Iran, many of whom eventually settled in the town.
By the trading system in ancient india dubai of the 20th century, it was an important port. Dubai was known for its pearl exports until the s; the pearl trade was damaged irreparably by the Great Depression in the s and the innovation of cultured pearls. With the collapse of the pearling industry, Dubai fell into a deep depression and many residents starved or migrated to other parts of the Persian Gulf.
In the early days since its inception, Dubai was constantly at odds with Abu Dhabi. Ina border dispute between Dubai and Abu Dhabi on the northern sector of their mutual border escalated into war. Arbitration by the British and the creation of a buffer frontier running south eastwards from the coast at Ras Hasian resulted in a temporary cessation of hostilities. Despite a lack of oil, Dubai's ruler fromSheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, used revenue from trading activities to build infrastructure.
Private companies trading system in ancient india dubai established to build and operate infrastructure, including electricity, telephone services and both the ports and airport operators. An airport of sorts a runway built on salt trading system in ancient india dubai was established in Dubai in the s and, inthe emirate's first hotel, the Airlines Hotel, was trading system in ancient india dubai.
This was followed by the Ambassador and Carlton Hotels in Early the next morning in heavy seas off Umm al-Quwain, an explosion tore out the second class cabins and started fires. The captain gave the order to abandon ship but two lifeboats capsized and a second explosion occurred. A flotilla of small boats trading system in ancient india dubai Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman and Umm al-Quwain picked up survivors but in all lives were lost in the disaster. In the Trading system in ancient india dubai Political Agent trading system in ancient india dubai that "Many new houses and blocks of offices and flats are being built More and more European and Arab firms are opening up and the future looks bright.
Inwith trading system in ancient india dubai on infrastructure projects already approaching levels some thought imprudent, Sheikh Rashid approached his brother in law, the Ruler of Qatar, for a loan to build the first bridge crossing Dubai's creek. This crossing was finished in May and was paid for by a toll levied on the crossing from the Dubai side of the creek to the Deira trading system in ancient india dubai.
BOAC was originally reluctant to start regular flights between Bombay and Dubai, fearing a lack of demand for seats. However, by the time the asphalt runway of Dubai Airport was constructed inopening Dubai to both regional and long haul traffic, a number of foreign airlines were competing for landing rights.
Trading system in ancient india dubai a new airport terminal building was constructed which trading system in ancient india dubai Dubai's first duty-free shops. After years of exploration following large finds in neighbouring Abu Dhabi, oil was eventually discovered in territorial waters off Dubai inalbeit in far smaller quantities.
The first field was named 'Fateh' or 'good fortune'. This led the emirate to grant concessions to international oil companies, thus leading to a massive influx of foreign workers, mainly Asians and Middle easterners. As part of the infrastructure for pumping and transporting oil from the Fateh field, located offshore of the Jebel Ali area of Dubai, a number of 50, gallon storage tanks were built, known locally as 'Kazzans', by welding them together on the beach and then digging them out and floating them to drop onto the seabed at the Fateh field.
Dubai had already embarked on a period of infrastructural development and expansion. Oil revenue, flowing from onwards supported a period of growth with Sheikh Rashid embarking on a policy of building infrastructure and a diversified trading economy before the emirate's limited reserves were depleted.
Critically, one of the first major projects Sheikh Rashid embarked upon when oil revenue started to flow was the construction of Port Rashid, a deep water free port constructed by British company Halcrow.
Originally intended to be a four-berth port, it was extended to sixteen berths as construction was ongoing. The project was an outstanding success, with shipping queuing to access the new facilities. The port was inaugurated on 5 Octoberalthough its berths were each pressed into use as soon as they had been built.
Port Rashid was to be further expanded in to add a further 35 berths before the larger port of Jebel Ali was constructed.
Port Rashid was the first of a swathe of projects designed to create a modern trading infrastructure, including roads, bridges, schools and hospitals. Dubai and trading system in ancient india dubai other 'trucial states' had long been a British protectorate where the British took care of foreign policy and defence, as well as arbitrating between the rulers of the Eastern Gulf.
Trading system in ancient india dubai decision was to pitch the coastal emirates, together with Qatar and Bahraininto fevered negotiations to fill the political vacuum that the British withdrawal would leave behind. The two agreed to work towards bringing the other emirates, including Qatar trading system in ancient india dubai Bahrain, into the union.
Over the next two years, negotiations and meetings of the rulers followed -often stormy- as a form of union was thrashed out. The nine-state union was never to recover from the October meeting where heavy-handed British intervention resulted in a walk-out by Qatar and Ras Al Khaimah.
Bahrain and Qatar were trading system in ancient india dubai drop out of talks, leaving six emirates to agree on union on 18 July InDubai joined the other emirates to adopt a trading system in ancient india dubai currency: In that same year, the prior monetary union with Qatar was dissolved and the UAE Dirham was introduced throughout the Emirates.
During the s, Dubai continued to grow from revenues generated from oil and trade, even as the city saw an influx of immigrants fleeing the Lebanese civil war. Border disputes between the emirates continued even after the formation of the UAE; it was only trading system in ancient india dubai that a formal compromise was reached that ended disagreements.
The Jebel Ali port was established in Dubai airport and the aviation industry also continued to grow. The Gulf War of had a negative financial effect on the city, as depositors withdrew their money and traders withdrew their trade, but subsequently, the city recovered in a changing political climate and thrived.
Later in the s, many foreign trading communities—first from Kuwaitduring the Gulf War, and later from Bahrainduring the Shia unrest—moved their businesses to Dubai. Large increases in oil prices after the Gulf War encouraged Dubai to continue to focus on free trade and tourism. The emirate of Dubai shares borders with Abu Dhabi in the south, Sharjah in the northeast, and the Sultanate of Oman in the southeast. Hatta, a minor exclave of the emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and by the emirates of Ajman in the west and Ras Al Khaimah in the north.
The Persian Gulf borders the western coast of the emirate. Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert. However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai's landscape is highlighted by sandy desert trading system in ancient india dubai, while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country.
The sand consists mostly of crushed shell and coral and is fine, clean and white. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as sabkhagive way to a north-south running line of dunes.
Farther east, the dunes grow larger and are tinged red with iron oxide. The flat sandy desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with Oman at Hatta.
The Western Hajar chain has an arid, jagged and shattered landscape, whose mountains rise to about 1, metres 4, feet in some places. Dubai has no natural river bodies or oases; however, Dubai does have a natural inlet, Dubai Creek, which has been dredged to make it deep enough for large vessels to pass through.
Dubai also has multiple gorges and waterholes, which dot the base of the Western Al Hajar mountains. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai and eventually leads into the desert known as The Empty Quarter. SeismicallyDubai is in a very stable zone—the nearest seismic fault line, the Zagros Fault, is kilometres miles from the UAE and is unlikely to have any seismic impact on Dubai. Experts also predict that the possibility of a tsunami in the region is minimal because the Persian Gulf waters are not deep enough to trigger a tsunami.
The sandy desert surrounding the city supports wild grasses and occasional date palms. Desert hyacinths grow in the sabkha plains east of the city, while acacia and ghaf trees grow in the flat plains within the proximity of the Western Al Hajar mountains. Several indigenous trees such as the date palm and neem as well as imported trees such as the eucalypts grow in Dubai's natural parks.
The houbara bustardstriped hyenacaracaldesert foxfalcon and Arabian oryx are common in Dubai's desert. Dubai is on the migration path between Europe, Asia and Africa, and more than migratory bird species pass through the emirate in spring and autumn. The waters of Dubai are home to more than species of fish, including the hammour.
The typical marine life off the Dubai coast includes tropical fish, jellyfish, coral, dugongdolphins, whales and sharks. Various types of turtles can also be found in the area including the hawksbill turtle and green turtlewhich are listed as endangered species.
Dubai Creek runs northeast-southwest through the city. The eastern section of the city forms the locality of Deira and is flanked by the emirate of Sharjah in the east and the town of Al Aweer in the south. Much of Dubai's real-estate boom is concentrated to the west of Dubai Creek, on the Jumeirah coastal belt.
Dubai has a hot desert climate. Most days are sunny throughout the year. Precipitation, however, has been increasing in the last few decades, with accumulated rain reaching Dubai summers are also known for the moderate to high humidity level, which can make it uncomfortable for many.